What is Operating System:
Operating System is a system software which is used to control and manage computer hardware components and application software and also establish communication between users and hardware devices to interact with each other. Every computer should have an operating system to work on it. Computer hardware and other programs are useless without an OS. If you do not install any OS in your desktop or laptop, no hardware like processor, RAM, keyboard, mouse will work and also you cannot open and work with any applications like ms word, excel, media players etc. So, after assembling hardware components, you have to first install an OS and then work with another. Like that every smart phones also should have OS such as android, ios etc.
Many functions are performed by operating system. Some of them are shown below:
- The OS enables computer hardware devices to take input, process data and provide output to output devices like monitor, speaker, printer.
- It interacts between users and computers to perform a specific task.
- It installs application software and help to work on that.
- This provides user interfaces to manage files and folders on storage devices like hard disk, pen drive, CD/DVD, memory card etc.
- This is also responsible for process management, memory management, storage management, data access, system control, program control, network communication etc.
Kinds of OS:
There are many kinds of operating systems commonly used today all over the IT world. The popular types of OS are described below:
Batch operating system: In the batch operating system, user does not work directly with computer. Jobs are prepared by each user using an offline device such as punch card and then submits to operator to process.
Time-sharing operating system: Time-sharing is a technique to use a particular computer system at the same time. By this system, many people can access a computer in same time using multiple terminals or workstations. The multi-programming system has been extended to multi-tasking or time-sharing. This system’s main purpose is to minimize response time of user request. It decreases CPU idle times.
Real time operating system: A real-time system is known as data processing system. Two types of real time OS are hard real time system and soft real time system.
Network operating system: The network operating system, NOS is a special type of OS designed for providing network services to many workstations. The NOS provides access shared files, folders, printers from multiple client computers. Its main purpose is to support clients for sharing databases and applications. The common jobs of NOS are network user administration, backup and restore, managing files and folders, providing security to network resources by proper monitoring, setting priority for printing related job etc. There are many NOS are available in our world today such as unix, linux, mac os, windows server, novell netware etc.
Linux is a network operating system. It is invented by Linus Torvalds. Novell Netware also a NOS designed by Novell Inc. It uses IPX network protocol.
Distributed operating system: The distributed OS is a system of distributed model used to run many distributed applications on multiple computers. These are linked with each other by communications. It is extension of NOS-network operating system. It provides higher communication level and also integrates many computers under the networks. This OS plays roles like a centralized OS which are running on multiple independent processors. It provides a useful set of services to users.