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Definition and Function of Computer Motherboard

Motherboard is an essential element of a computer system. It looks simply a plastic plate where assorted components are attached. In the article, we will discuss about definition and function of computer motherboard. Let’s see …


Motherboard is a printed circuit board and also central connectivity point where all internal and external peripherals are connected to communicate with each other. Sometimes it is known as many altComputer Motherboardernative names like mainboard, system board, logic board, base board, colloquially. Its short name is mobo. It is attached with casing using standouts.


The motherboard performs many crucial activities to run the system. The primary functions are listed below:

  1. It supplies power to all components as per their requirement.
  2. It plays role as a central backbone of the system. Every devices are installed on it like CPU, RAM, Cooling Fan, Heatsink etc.
  3. It has many expansion slots where various interfaces are installed like NIC-Network Interface Card, Sound Card, Internal Modem.
  4. This also hold BIOS in built-in ROM on which computer startup programs are written.
  5. This controls all the system devices.
  6. It also establishes connectivity between processor and RAM and transmit data among all.

Form Factors:

Many sizes motherboard are available in the market like AT, Baby-AT, Full AT, BTX, DTX, LPX,  ATX,mini-ATX, micro-ATX, Full-ATX, mini-ITX, NLX. But ATX is most common size today.


Many companies are manufacturing motherboard today all over the word. The most popular companies are Intel, Asus, Acer, MSI, IBM, Biostar, Foxconn, Gigabyte Technology, ASRock etc. IBM produces motherboard for their own mainframe computer.

MB element list:

A system board keeps many built-in elements with itself which are described shortly below:

Processor Socket:- This socket is the central piece. A processor is set on it.

Power Connector:- This is used to connect power supplier’s main power cord by which electricity is transmitted from power supplier to motherboard and then supplies to other devices as per their needs. Generally it has 20-24 pins. This connector is situated right side of the mainboard. The newer version MB has 4 pin or 8 pin connector near the CPU.

Memory Slot:- It is located in upper-right side of the system board used to hold RAM-Random Access Memory. This slot can vary from 2 slots in low-end upto 8 slots in high-end MB.

Graphics slot:- It is placed on the right below side of the CPU. It contains extra graphics card for high performance display purpose.

Expansion Slots: The expansion slots are responsible to enhance PC functionality. It installs NIC-Network Interface Card, extra sound card, internal modem, TV tuner and other like that.

IDE and SATA ports:- The IDE or SATA cable of storage device like hard disk and optical drive CD/DVD ROM are added with the board by the these slots.

The motherboard are also containing front panel, usb and audio headers, keyboard and mouse ports, graphics port where monitor cable is connected, serial port, parallel port.

Parallel port is used to bind printer cable. But usb printer is being utilized mostly today. This is D-shaped female connector found in the back side of system unit. It has 25 holes to insert 25 pins male connector.

Serial port is responsible to put in serial devices mouse, modem. This type of port is capable to transmit one bit data at a time. It has holes found in the back of system unit and also built-in part of motherboard.

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